Selecting a Guitar: Four Pertinent Questions By John M. Gilbert

I found this article on the Delcamp Classical Guitar Forum. The late John Gilbert was a well-known builder of classical guitars who then devoted his time to the production of his line of tuners, while his son William continued the Gilbert tradition of high quality concert guitars. Gilbert guitars have been used by David Russel, David Leisner, George Sakellariou, David Tanenbaum, Frederic Hand, Earl Klugh, Raphaella Smits, and many others.

His legacy lives on HERE  http://wgilbertguitars.com/john-gilbert-s-passing-away/ and HERE https://gilberttuners.com/

I have edited out some of the more technical details to make it more suitable for beginner to intermediate level guitarists.

“How do I choose a good guitar?” After years of hearing this query I decided,
several years ago, to write a brief outline of those things that are pertinent to the question. At the same time I decided that this guide could serve as a format for the lectures I give on this subject. I would like to share that outline with you now and then proceed to a more detailed discussion of some of the points it raises.

How to Select a Guitar

The four areas to look into are:
1. Sound
2. Action and feel
3. Condition and construction
4. Cost

The most important of these is Sound: That’s what the guitar is all about
…sound. There are several ways to check for sound:
a. Bring a good sounding guitar for comparison.
b. Bring along a friend with a good ear who can also play.
c. When testing guitars do it outdoors or if that isn’t possible, do it in the largest room you can find.

The important facets of overall sound quality are:
1. Timbre. (Quality of the individual tones.)
2. Balance. (Trebles must match bass.)
3. Separation. (The clarity with which individual tones can be distinguished in a
chord.)
4. Sustain. (The rate of decay of a tone after it is struck.)
5. Loudness.
6. Intonation.
Always remember that sound can rarely be greatly improved in a guitar without tremendous expense.

Action and Feel.

Action is the height of the strings above the fret and fingerboard. Feel pertains to those features that comprise the playability of a guitar other than the action, such as: neck size and shape; string length; string spacing and location from the edges of the fingerboard; body shape. Actions can usually be corrected at moderate expense. Other than reducing fingerboard width and neck size, little else can sensibly be done to change the feel.

Condition and Construction.

If the guitar is new, then examine it for clean construction inside the body and
carefully tap around the face and back to check for broken struts. Check for depressed or swollen face. See if the bridge is on tightly. Check the condition of the neck and frets. If the guitar is old, examine it for the above conditions plus cracks in the face, back, sides, neck-to-body joint, head-to-neck joint, purfling and centerjoint of the back. Also examine the tuning machines for worn gears or sloppy installation.

Cost.

Let the buyer beware! Know the seller! Ask about a guarantee. Shopmaround. Remember the most costly guitar isn’t always the best. Think about re-sale.

Sound

Loudness.  If you intend to give recitals and concerts in large halls, you had better be sure that the guitar you choose projects well. The best place to test for this is outdoors. If weather deters you, the second best method is to use an auditorium, gymnasium, or a church. Lacking all of the above, use the largest room you can find. When making this test and, for that matter, all test pertaining to sound, it helps to have a proven guitar along (or several) to use as a basis for comparison and, naturally, someone to play for you and to listen while you play. If you do not plan on concertizing or if you intend to amplify electronically, loudness is not the most important factor of sound to you, but all other sound qualities will be. So at this time, with guitar in hand, let us test for them.

Timbre  is purely subjective, so that what sounds great to me may not impress you at all. However, the instrument must have a tone quality that truly satisfies you, or you will not enjoy playing it no matter what other attributes it may have.

Balance. This I prefer to think of as mostly an objective test because if either the treble or bass end is weak, it will be very noticeable heard at a distance. Be sure to test for this by barring each fret from the first to the twelfth because some guitars have weaknesses more pronounced in certain areas of the fingerboard than others.

Separation (or clarity) is, to a great degree, a quality that goes untested by most players because it is such a difficult and elusive feature to listen for. When a guitar has loudness, good timbre and balance, it is hard to remind yourself to really listen to chords to see if you can hear individual tones (like a good barbershop quartet) or only a glob of sound.

Sustain. Some guitars have an even output of sound and will appear to have good sustain, whereas a guitar with a robust or popping initial output of sound will seem to have less sustain. Therefore, when comparing guitars set a metronome at some fast tempo and count the beats from pluck (or pick) to silence. Some interesting facts will emerge by trying this with different guitars. As to the amount of sustain, all tones on the guitar should have some, with the lowest tones having more than the higher tones.

Wake Up the Soundbox
One word of advice about testing guitars: be sure to play the instrument for at least ten minutes or more before testing in order to “wake up” the soundbox. This is particularly true for spruce-faced guitars. Cedar faces are less likely to require this.

Intonation is included as a branch of sound quality because if the guitar doesn’t play in tune it sounds bad. Fortunately, you can check for fretting accuracy and saddle and nut placement. If errors are found, they can be easily corrected by any competent repair person.

There are several ways to test for tonal accuracy. Let us start with one that many of you are familiar with. Play each string at the 12th fret. Then strike the 12th fret harmonic. These should be identical in pitch. If they are, it tells us only that the maker placed the saddle correctly. If all six strings play sharp, it tells us that the saddle wasn’t set back far enough. If all strings play flat, it tells us that the saddle is set too far back. The cure for either of these conditions is to have the saddle or nut reshaped or repositioned. Again, a repair person should be consulted. Keep in mind that faulty strings can also sound either sharp or flat, but never all six in the same direction. So you should be able to rule out the occasional bad string.

Action

Another important topic for discussion is the action of the guitars. It is possible to mechanically check to see if yours has a good one. Here is a simple and effective test.Depress the strings one at a time at the 1st fret without  sounding the note. Measure the height from the top of the 12th fret to the bottom of each string, using a steel ruler with .010” graduations.
The readings should be:
1st string, .100” to .115”
2nd string, .110” to .120”
3rd string, .120” to .130”
4th string, .125” to .135”
5th string, .130” to .140”
6th string, .135” to .145”

These readings are for classical guitars. The lower readings constitute a low action and the higher readings, a normal action. Anything higher would indicate a high action. Keep in mind that the required action height will vary for different players due to two things: one, the player’s attack style and two, how hard he /she plays the strings. Also, these readings do not take into account the fret condition or the straightness of the fingerboard.

Here is a John Gilbert guitar in action.

Knowing your classical guitar

 

My apologies to experienced players, but I wrote this article for those just starting out as players or interested non-players.

In this article, I deal briefly with a range of aspects of guitar construction, playability, intonation, humidity, strings and so on. I have only built one classical guitar, but I am a passionate enthusiast and I have researched and experimented quite a bit.

HERE is the article.

Great guitar tuner apps for Android Smartphones and Tablets

I have used and evaluated no less than seventeen Android tuner applications and have found most of them wanting in one or more vital areas like accuracy, ease of use, clarity, and so on. However, there are a few exceptions which are well worth using and passing on. This short article covers my personal top five.

The best of the best tuning apps– Pitchlab Pro

Let me start with my all-time favourite guitar tuning application, PitchLab Pro. I have been using this application for two years and no matter what new apps I try out, I always come back to this one. It shows the name of the nearest note, the Hz reading of the note you are playing, and the difference in cents from perfect pitch. It also has visual cues to show when you are in tune and whether you have to tune up or down. It is very accurate and will also register notes a full octave higher than the open strings allowing you to check intonation at the 12th fret.

I seldom use the other screens available but here they are:

Stage Tuner: A large, clear tuning display, optimised for hands-free operation at a distance incorporating a true radial and waterfall strobe for fine-tuning accuracy and responsiveness.

Chord Matrix: Grid-based estimation display of common chord types (maj/min, maj7/min7, dom7/dim7), ideal for quickly determining chords for a tune.

Pitch Spectrogram: Scrolling display of live sound analysis, showing the perceived pitch of a wide range of sound types.

Tone Generator: An 8-octave, polyphonic keyboard display that enables you to play reference notes in the musical scale. Includes a selection of tone waveform types and the ability to quickly switch between single-note or multi-note mode.

Strobe Tuner: A true 6-band, multi-mode strobe display combined with a chromatic ribbon tuner for rapid and accurate instrument tuning.

Split Screen: Split the screen and use any two tuning views at the same time
.

The most useful app for tuning up new strings

The other tuner that I use from time to time, particularly when I am changing strings, is GuitarLab Tuner. This is an excellent application that has two unique features. Not only does it allow you to lock onto one particular string (6th String E in the illustration, but it displays arrows indicating how far you are from fine-tuning range. In the illustration, the arrows show that the note being played is way too low. If the note played was far too high then arrows would appear to the right of the display. This is a very useful application when fitting new strings. The other great feature is the ‘Smart’ mode which averages the inputs through the mic and applies an algorithm that displays a stable reading of the note you are playing. The note displayed does not therefore decay or waver as is common when tuning the higher strings. This mode is a little slow because of the computer processing required but it is quite useful.

An oldie but goodie tuning app reborn

A tuner that has been around for a long time is gStrings. It was replaced for a while with Waves tuner but it was then reworked from scratch and is now a very accurate and easy to use application. Two things I particularly like are the big analogue-type display, and the fact that it displays the Hz reading of the note you are playing as well as the frequency of the note you are trying to achieve. In the illustration, the note is D at 146.8 Hz shown just above the needle and the string being plucked is in a little too high at 147.1 Hz. This application also registers notes played at the 12th fret and so allows you to check your intonation.

A quick and easy app for any tuning occasion

Another old favourite among guitarists is Guitar Tuna. This application has a big and clear display and both a visual and an audio signal when you are in tune. It is fast and accurate, and well suited to a quick tune-up on the fly. Like several other applications of this type, it includes a chord library and a metronome.

The display combines some helpful elements that make tuning a breez. However, its developers claim more for it than just simplicity of use. According to them, it contains ‘award winning audio technology:
• Built on the world’s most advanced audio recognition algorithm – the same technology powering Yousician
• Professional accuracy for advanced players
• Auto mode tuner (for super fast tuning, hands-free, string by string)’.

One for the sound engineers among us

One other tuning application that warrants a mention is TE Tuner. Its main screen is different to the usual analogue-type displays but does provide all the information needed to bring each string to pitch. It incorporates a metronome, but its main contribution is the display showing an analysis of frequency and harmonic energy, along with a scrolling waveform display. This is why TE in its name stands for ‘tonal energy’. I don’t find much use for this but it is available for those who want to take tuning to a more technical and detailed level.

The two I use over and over again

Every time I put new strings on a guitar, or retune after maintenance I use GuitarLab Tuner and almost every time I sit down to practice I use PitchLab Pro. I have always found these two apps to be accurate, easy to use, and very helpful… and no, I am not sponsored by the developers.